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Concepts of health, including of illness and death

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 7
أستاذ المادة امين عجيل ياسر الياسري       10/07/2018 11:06:19
Dr. Ameen Al Yassiry

Concepts of health, including of illness and death

Introduction
• Health, wellness, and well-being have many definitions and interpretations. The nurse should be familiar with the most common aspects of the concepts and consider how they may be individualized with specific clients.

Health
Health refers to a person’s physical, mental, and spiritual state; it can be positive (as being in good health) or negative (as being in poor health).
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health positively as “a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.

The Health Continuum: Wellness–Illness
Society suggests a polarized [either - or] way of thinking about health: people either are well or they are ill.
Yet wellness is a relative concept, not an absolute, and illness is a state of being relatively unhealthy.
There are many levels and degrees of wellness and illness . Because health involves a range of degrees from optimal level of health to total disability or death ,it often is described as a continuum.

Wellness & Well-Being
• Wellness further describes health status. It allows health to be placed on a continuum from one’s optimal level (wellness) to a maladaptive state (illness)
• Wellness is a dynamic process that is always changing. The well person usually has some degree of illness and the ill person usually has some degree of wellness.
• This concept of a health continuum negates the idea that wellness and illness are opposite because they may occur simultaneously in the same person in varying degrees

Dimensions of Wellness
1. Physical : The ability to carry out daily tasks, achieve fitness (e.g. pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal), maintain adequate nutrition and proper body fat, avoid abusing drugs and alcohol or using tobacco products, and generally to practice positive lifestyle habits.
2. Social.: The ability to interact successfully with people and within the environment
3. Emotional: The ability to manage stress and to express emotions appropriately, Emotional wellness involves the ability to recognize, accept, and express feelings.
4. Intellectual: The ability to learn and use information effectively for personal, family, and career development
5. Spiritual: The belief in some force (nature, science, religion, or a higher power) that serves to unite human beings and provide meaning and purpose of life
6. Occupational: The ability to achieve a balance between work and leisure time, A person s beliefs about education, employment, and home influence personal satisfaction and relationships with others.
7. Environmental :The ability to promote health measures that improve the standard of living and quality of life in the community
Well-being
“wellbeing is a subjective perception of vitality and feeling that is a component of health within the interaction worldview. “
Although well-being is a variable subjective trait, it can be described objectively, experienced, and measured.

Factors influencing health status, beliefs, and practices:
• Internal factors
• External factors

1. Internal factors
• Biologic dimension: genetic makeup, sex, age, and developmental level all significantly influence a person s health.
• Psychological dimension: emotional factors influencing health include mind-body interactions and self-concept.
• Cognitive dimension include lifestyle choices and spiritual and religious beliefs.

2. External factors
• Environment.
• Standards of living. Reflecting occupation, income, and education.
• Family and cultural beliefs. Patterns of daily living and lifestyle to offspring( children).
• Social support networks. Family, friends, or confidant (best friend) and job satisfaction helps people avoid illness.

Illness and Disease
Is a highly personal state in which the person s physical, emotional, intellectual, social, developmental, or spiritual functioning is thought to be diminished. Illness is usually associated with disease but may occur independently of it. Illness is a highly personal state in which the person feels unhealthy or ill.

Disease
• Disease can be described as an alteration in body functions resulting in a reduction of capacities or shortening of the normal life span.
• The causation of a disease is called its etiology.

The classify illness and disease:
• Acute illness is typically characterized by severe symptoms of relatively short duration.
• A chronic illness is one that lasts for an extended period, usually 6 months or longer, and often for person s life.

There are several approaches to health maintenance:
1. Health promotion
2. Health protection
3. Disease prevention

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .