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# Decision making and problem Solving

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 7
أستاذ المادة امين عجيل ياسر الياسري       07/02/2018 05:37:13
A Problem can be defined as :
“ A perceived gap between the desired state and actual state”. (Expectation versus Reality)
All problems have two features in common: Goals and
Barriers

What is a Goal ?
*Goals can be anything that you wish to achieve, (or) where you want to be.
*Goals may not be strictly measurable or tangible..
What is a Barrier ?
*Barriers are the obstacles that prevent the achievement of goals in problem solving.
*If there are no barriers in the way of achieving a goal, then there would be no problem.
What is Decision Making
It is the process of recognizing a problem, generating an weighing alternatives, coming to a decision, taking action , and assessing the results
Basic Questions to ask in defining the Problem
Who?
• Who is causing the problem?
• Who says this is a problem?
• Who are impacted by this problem?
What?
What will happen if this problem is not solved?
• What are the impacts?
• What are the symptoms?
Where?
• Where does this problem occur?
• Where does this problem have an impact?
When?
• When does this problem occur?
• When did this problem first start occurring
• Why?
Why is this problem occurring?
• Why and why and why?
Stages of Problem Solving
Effective problem solving and decision making usually involves working
through a number of steps or stages.
Stages of Problem Solving:
Stage 1 : Identifying the Problem
Stage 2 : Structuring the Problem
Stage 3 : Looking for Possible Solutions
Stage 4 : Making a Decision Stage
Stage 5 : Implementation Stage
Stage 6 : Monitoring / Seeking Feedback :
Stage 1 : Identifying the Problem
*Looking at the problem in terms of goals and barriers can offer an effective way of defining many problems.
*Besides it helps in splitting bigger problems into smaller ones or manageable sub-problems.
*Sometimes it will become apparent that what seems to be a single problem, is more of a series of sub-problems.
Let us take the following problem:
“I have been offered a job, but I don t have the transport to get there and I don t have enough money to buy a car.”
Main Problem "I want to take a job”
Sub Problem - 1 “But I don t have transport to get there” Sub Problem - 2 “And I don t have enough money to buy a car”

المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .