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Management Theory

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 7
أستاذ المادة امين عجيل ياسر الياسري       07/02/2018 05:31:12
Management theories are the set of general rules that guide the managers to manage an organization.

Theories are an explanation to assist employees to effectively relate to the business goals and implement effective means to achieve the same.
GENERAL MANAGEMENT THEORIES
1. Frederick Taylor – Theory of Scientific
Management
2. Henri Fayol – Administrative
Management Theory
3. Max Weber - Bureaucratic Theory of
Management
4. Elton Mayo – Behavioral Theory of
Management ( Hawthorne Effect )
SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT
Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s within the manufacturing industries.

Scientific Management(Taylorism), was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows.

Its main objective was improving economic efficiency, especially labor productivity by analyzing and establishing workflow processes.

Scientific Management’s themes include analysis, synthesis, logic, rationality, empiricism, work ethic, efficiency and elimination of waste, standardization of best practices and others.

Basic Elements of Scientific Management
Advantages of Scientific Management
Scientific selection and training of employees leads to better workforce which ensures increase in efficiency.

Harmonious relationship between the workers and the management.

Opportunity for scientific training and development to increase skills knowledge and competency.

Application of scientific methods and techniques in better working conditions to reduce fatigue.

Higher wages to the workers for higher productivity.

Disadvantages of Scientific Management
It is based upon one best way and is applicable for simple organizations than that for today’s dynamic and complex organization.

It focuses on individual performance than group efforts and divides the workers into efficient and inefficient categories.

It is focused on specialization and repetition of jobs to increase the productivity which reduces innovation and creativity and promotes monotony.

It neglects human factor because it motivates workers to work for monetary benefits rather than human resource development and resources.

There is no scope for creativity of employees because they are developed by manager which promotes frustration.
It is based upon one best way and is applicable for simple organizations than that for today’s dynamic and complex organization.

It focuses on individual performance than group efforts and divides the workers into efficient and inefficient categories.

It is focused on specialization and repetition of jobs to increase the productivity which reduces innovation and creativity and promotes monotony.

It neglects human factor because it motivates workers to work for monetary benefits rather than human resource development and resources.

There is no scope for creativity of employees because they are developed by manager which promotes frustration.
It is based upon one best way and is applicable for simple organizations than that for today’s dynamic and complex organization.

It focuses on individual performance than group efforts and divides the workers into efficient and inefficient categories.

It is focused on specialization and repetition of jobs to increase the productivity which reduces innovation and creativity and promotes monotony.

It neglects human factor because it motivates workers to work for monetary benefits rather than human resource development and resources.

There is no scope for creativity of employees because they are developed by manager which promotes frustration.
Classical management theory is

a branch of management theory which evolved around the 19th century. It was developed during the industrial revolution when problems related to factory systems began, to recognize the role that management plays in an organization particularly focusing on the efficiency of the work process.
Management is viewed as a systematic process of interrelated functions.
Principles of management are used as a guideline for the executives.
Functions , Principles and skills of management are universal.
Formal education and training is needed for the development of the required skills.
Emphasis is placed on the economic efficiency.
People are motivated by economic gains and other incentives.
Classical theory pillar mainly stands on three pillars :Bureaucracy, Scientific management and Administration.
Though this approach provides Specialization, structure, rationality, predictability and democracy but at the same time a lot of paperwork , compartmentalization of work, rigidity and Goal displacement is there.
Hierarchical Structure: One of the advantages of the classical management structure is a clear organizational hierarchy with three distinct management levels. Each management group has its own objectives and responsibilities. 
Division of Labour :One of the advantages of classical management approach is the division of labour. Projects are broken down into smaller tasks that are easy to complete. Employees responsibilities and expectations are clearly defined. This approach allows workers to narrow their field of expertise and to specialize in one area.
Monetary Incentive :According to classical management theory, employees should be motivated by monetary rewards. In other words, they will work harder and become more productive if they have an incentive to look forward to. This gives management easier control over the workforce.
Autocratic Leadership: The autocratic leadership approach is the central part of classical management theory. It states that an organization should have a single leader to make decisions, to organize and direct the employees. All decisions are made at the top level and communicated down.

Untested assumptions: Many of the assumptions made by classical writers were based not on scientific tests but on value judgments that expressed what they believed to be proper life-styles, moral codes, and attitudes toward success.
Human machinery: Classical theories leave the impression that the organization is a machine and that workers are simply parts to be fitted into the machine to make it run efficiently. Thus, many of the principles are concerned first with making the organization efficient, with the assumption that workers will conform to the work setting if the financial incentives are agreeable.
Static conditions : Organizations are influenced by external conditions that often fluctuate over time, yet classical management, theory presents an image of an organization that is not shaped by external influences. 
Human relation is an area of management practice which is concerned with the integration of people into a work situation in a way that motivate them to work productively, cooperatively & with economic, psychological & social satisfaction.
Human relations are the relations between human being that are affected by many other factors & helps in the accomplishment of goals of an organization.


Higher performance
The performance of people in an organization depends mainly on three factors, namely technology, ability and motivation. Human relations is the key to generate the willingness among the employees.
Optimum use of resources
Productivity and progress in industry can be achieved only by a human approach to labour problems

Moral justification
Employees are human beings like managers and owners. They are to be treated with the same respect and dignity as any other human beings.

Understanding of human factor
Human relations help managers to better understand the attitudes and behaviour of employees.

MAJOR THEMES IN HUMAN RELATIONS
COMMUNICATION
SELF-AWARENESS
SELF-ACCEPTANCE
MOTIVATION
TRUST
SELF-DISCLOSURE
CONFLICT RESOLUTION

Behavioral Theory

In the behavioural view of leadership, personal traits provide only foundation for leadership; real leaders are made through education, training, and life experiences.

Effective Leaders acquire a pattern of learned behaviours.
REFERENCES
Rosenbloom, David and R. Kravchuk (2005), Public Administration, Understanding Management, Politics and Law in the Public Sector, Chapter 4.
J. Stewart Black and Lyman W. Porter (2000), Management Meeting New Challenges, Chapter 2.
Lecture Notes: En Nawi Bin Abdullah, Organization and Bureaucracy, Lecture 8 & 9.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_management
http://notes.tyrocity.com/advantages-and-limitations-of-scientific-management/


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