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Nursing models

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أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       24/12/2016 12:16:50
Nursing models

Differences between theories and models
What is a theory? A theory refers to a tentative statement involving some element of reality that has not been proved.
The nursing profession tends to use the term theory when attempting to explain apparent relationships between observed behaviors and their effects on a client’s health. In this nursing context, the goal of a theory is to describe and explain a particular nursing action.

hypothesis: which predicts the effect on a client’s outcome, such as improved health or recovery from illness. For example, the action of turning an unresponsive client from side to side every 2 hours should help to prevent
skin breakdown and improve respiratory function.
In recent years, nursing has been moving toward using research findings to guide nursing practice. This approach, called
evidence-based practice, is an important element in improving nursing care and proving many of the long-standing theories that the nursing profession has developed over the years.
Conceptual models of nursing
Conceptual models (or conceptual frameworks) are the second type of theoretical work that provides organizational
structures for critical thinking about the processes of nursing
These are broad conceptual structures that provide comprehensive, holistic perspectives of nursing by describing the relationships of specific concepts.
models are more abstract, however, than theories of nursing, Theories are built from conceptual models much as buildings are constructed from blueprints. The blueprints show the general relationships between parts of the building and are adaptable; conceptual models provide a preliminary view of the relationship between concepts of nursing that can be used to build theory.
Orem’s Self-Care Model
Dorothea Orem, born in 1914 in Baltimore, Working as a nurse in a number of roles, Orem first published her concept of
self-care in 1959. She continued to develop her conceptual model over several decades.
Her model focuses on the patient’s self-care capacities and the process of designing nursing actions to meet the patient’s
self-care needs. In this model, the nurse prescribes and regulates the nursing system on the basis of the patient’s self-care deficit, which is the extent to which a patient is incapable of providing effective self-care. An underlying assumption of Orem’s model is that “ordinary people in contemporary society want to be in control of their lives”
Orem and Nursing Practice
To determine the patient’s ability to provide effective self-care, the nurse initiates a diagnostic operation that begins with the establishment of the nurse-patient relationship. This includes contracting with the patient to explore current and potential self-care demands.
Factors such as age, gender, and developmental status, as well as Sociocultural and environmental
This is a planning stage in which the nurse confirms with the patient the nurse’s assessment of the patient’s needs and begins to formulate a plan of care, in which the patient has the ability to provide effective self care, but needs to work with the nurse to further develop these abilities or acquire additional information to promote self-care.

Roy’s Adaptation Model
Sister Callista Roy was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1939. She focused on the individual as a biopsychosocial adaptive system and described nursing as a humanistic discipline that emphasizes the person’s adaptive or coping abilities. Roy’s work is based on adaptation and adaptive behavior, which is produced by altering the environment. According to Roy, the individual and the environment are sources of stimuli that require modification to promote adaptation in the patient. Roy viewed the person as an adaptive system with physiological, self-concept, role function,
and interdependent modes.
Effective adaptive responses promote the integrity of the individual by conserving energy and promoting the survival, growth, reproduction, and mastery of the human system. Nursing promotes the patient’s adaptation and coping, with progress toward integration as the goal





The Neuman Health-Care Systems Model
As envisioned by Betty Neuman, the Health-Care Systems Model focuses on the individual and his or her environment and is applicable to a variety of health-care disciplines apart from nursing. Drawing from systems theory, the Neuman model also includes elements from stress theory with an overall holistic view of humanity and health care.

Client In this model, the client is viewed as an open system that interacts constantly with internal and external environments through the system’s boundaries. The client-system’s boundaries are called lines of defense and resistance in the Neuman model and may be represented graphically as a series of concentric circles that surround the basic core of the individual.
The goal of these boundaries is to keep the basic core system stable by controlling system input and output.

Health
Health, then, in the Neuman model is defined as the relatively stable internal functioning of the client. Optimal health exists when the client is maintained in a high state of wellness or stability.
Environment
The environment is composed of internal and external forces, or stressors, that produce change or response in the client. Stressors may be helpful or harmful, strong or weak.

Nursing
The nurse’s role in the Neuman model is to identify at what level or in which boundary a disruption in the client’s internal
stability has taken place and then to aid the client in activities that strengthen or restore the integrity of that particular boundary. The Neuman model expands the concept of client from the individual to include families, small groups, the community, or even society in general.

Rogers science of unitary human beings
According to Martha E. Rogers (1970), unity man:

1. Is an irreducible, four dimensional energy field identified by pattern.
2. Manifests characteristics different from the sum of the parts.
3. Interacts continuously and creatively with the environment.
4. Behaves as a totality.
5. As a sentient being, participates creatively in change

Nurses applying Rogers s theory in practice:
1. Focus on the person s wholeness.
2. Seek to promote symphonic interaction between the two energy fields (human and environment) to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the person.
3. Coordinate the human field with the rhythmicity of the environmental field.
4. Direct and redirect patterns of interaction between the two energy fields to promote maximum health potential.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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