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The Health Education Process

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       19/11/2016 20:18:58
Unit 6: The Health Education Process:
• Teaching is a specialized communication process in which desired behavior changes are achieved.
• The goal of all teaching is learning. Learning is an idea to mean gaining knowledge (recalls, knows), comprehension (understands) , or mastery( Application) (uses learning). These are nebulous (vague ) terms, and a more acceptable definition suggests.
• learning is a process of assimilating (understanding) new information that promotes a permanent change in behavior.
• Domains of learning
1. Cognitive Domain
• The cognitive domain of learning involves the mind and thinking processes. When the meaning and relationship of a series of facts is grasped, cognitive learning is experienced.
• The cognitive domain deals with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills.
• There are six major levels in the cognitive domain :
a. knowledge: This level may be used with clients who are unable to understand underlying reasons or rationales, such as young children or people who have had strokes. Stroke clients may need to remember that medication should be taken daily, that regular exercise restores function, and that drinking alcohol should be avoided, although they may not grasp the reasons behind these measures. Five-year-olds may need to identify healthful foods rather than understand why they are nutritious.
b. Comprehension: The second level of cognitive learning, comprehension, combines remembering with understanding.
• Teaching aims at instilling at least a minimal understanding. Nurses want clients to grasp the meaning and to recognize the importance of suggested health behaviors.
c. Application: Application approaches the possibility of self-care when clients use their knowledge to improve their own health.
The test of application is a transfer of understanding into practice.
d. Analysis: at this level, the learner breaks down material into parts, distinguishes between elements, and understands the relationships among the parts.
• This level of learning becomes a preliminary step toward problem-solving.
e. Synthesis: Synthesis, the fifth level of cognitive learning, is the ability not only to break down and understand the elements of a situation but also to form elements into a new whole.
• Synthesis combines all of the earlier levels of cognitive learning to culminate in the production of a unique plan or solution.
• f. Evaluation: at this level, the learner judges the usefulness of new material compared with a stated purpose or specific criteria
2. Affective Domain:
• The affective domain in which learning occurs involves emotion, feeling, or affect. This kind of learning deals with changes in interest, attitudes, and values Consistent practice is a crucial test at this level.
3. Psychomotor Domain:
The psychomotor domain includes visible, demonstrable performance skills that require some kind of neuromuscular coordination.
• Clients in the community need to learn skills such as infant bathing, temperature taking, breast or testicular self-examination, prenatal breathing exercises, range-of-motion exercises, catheter irrigation, walking with crutches, and how to change dressings.
Learning theories
1. Behavioral Learning Theories: focusing on behaviors that can be observed, measured, and changed. Developed early in the 20th century, behavioral theory work is associated primarily with famous names: Ivan Pavlov (1957), Pavlov conditioned a dog to anticipate food by ringing a bell at feeding time. Initially, the dog would salivate as the food was brought to the cage. However, after time, the dog would salivate at hearing the bell, before seeing or smelling the food.
2. Cognitive Learning Theories: Piaget (1966, 1970) believed that cognitive development is an orderly, sequential, and interactive process in which a variety of new experiences must exist before intellectual abilities can develop. His work with children led him to develop five phases of cognitive development, from birth to 15 years of age, Nurses must understand their audience’s learning stage to ascertain how to approach teaching for that developmental stage.
3. Social Learning Theories: Social learning theory focuses on the learners. They are benefitted by role models, building self-confidence, persuasion, and personal mastery. Self-efficacy can lead to the desired behaviors and outcomes.
Teaching–Learning Principles
1. Client Readiness
2. Client Perceptions
3. Educational Environment
4. Client Participation
5. Subject Relevance
6. Client Satisfaction
7. Client Application


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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