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Primary Health Care Definition, Goal, Principles and Strategies

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       15/10/2014 20:34:22


Primary Health Care Definition, Goal, Principles and Strategies


The Alma Ata Conference defines Primary Health Care as essential health care based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally, accessible to individuals and families in the community by means of acceptable to them, through their full participation and at a cost that community and country can afford to maintain at every stage of their development in the spirit of self-reliance and self-determination. It forms an integral part of both the country’s health system, of which it is the central function and the main focus and of the overall social and economic development of the community.
Involvement of communities in planning, delivery and evaluation of such care and an active role for other sectors in health activities.
Health care workers must understand their responsibilities for maintaining, restocking and securing medical supplies on a regular basis. Must have knowledge of community-based principles of case finding, record keeping, community monitoring of immunizations, prenatal care, disease prevention, health promotion, and basic measures to ensure community sanitation.
Goal:
• The global goal as stated in the Alma Ata Declaration is Health for All by the year 2000 through self-reliance.
• Health begins at home, in schools and in the workplace because it is there where people live and work that health is made or broken.
• It also means that people will use better approaches than they do now for preventing diseases and alleviating unavoidable disease and disability and have better ways of growing up, growing old and dying gracefully.
• It also means that here will be even distribution among the population of whatever resources for health are available.
• It means that essential health services will be accessible to all individuals and families in an acceptable and affordable way.
Principles and Strategies:
1. Universal coverage of the population, with care provided according to need:
No one should be left out, no matter how poor or how remote. It means the all in health for all.

2. Services should be promotive, preventive, curative, and rehabilitative:
Services should not be only curative, but also should be promotive to the population s understanding of health and healthy style of life, and reach toward the root causes of diseases with preventive emphasis. Treatment of illness and rehabilitation are important as well.

3. Services should be effective, culturally accepted, affordable and manageable:
Services must be effective, cultural acceptability and effectiveness are mutually dependent. Services must be affordable in local terms as governmental resources are limited.

4. Community should be involved to promote self- reliance:
The community should be actively involved in the process of defining health problems and needs, developing and implementing and evaluating programs.

5. Approaches to health should be related to other sectors of development:
Actions should be taken to deal with cause of ill health. Education for literacy, clean water and sanitation, improved housing, ecological sustainability, building of roads or waterways, income supplement, enhancing roles for women, more effective marketing of products. All theses have a substantial impact on health.

Essential Health Services in Primary Health Care (ELEMENTS)
6. E – Education for Health
7. L – Locally endemic disease control
8. E – Expanded program for immunization
9. M – Maternal and Child Health including responsible parenthood
10. E – Essential drugs
11. N – Nutrition
12. T – Treatment of communicable and non-communicable diseases
13. S - Safe water and sanitation

Primary health care is the first point of contact for individuals who are unwell and to promote healthy lifestyles in order to prevent illness from occurring. Principles of primary health care are a set of beliefs and values that revolve around equity and fairness for all, eliminating discrimination, so that all people have access to primary health care whenever they need it. Under the principles, primary care should be organized and distributed to minimize costs, so that health care is affordable and accessible.
One of the overriding principles of primary health care is that it is the first point of contact for people should they experience illness. If a patient has a bad back, he could utilize primary health care by visiting a doctor or nurse. Principles of primary health care state that it must be accessible by all people, regardless of factors such as socio-economic background, color, race or sexuality.
The World Health Organization (WHO) works towards helping countries to provide excellent health care for all people. They set out goals and principles for primary health care for organizations and communities to work towards, in their "Health for All" strategy. According to these goals, no one should be excluded from receiving primary health care and social discrimination should be eliminated. Medical care must be fairly distributed among all people, no matter where they live or their social class.
Effective and regular training is a principle, along with developing the primary health care work force. It also involves working with communities to make the most of the contributions individuals can make to their own health and the health of their communities. People s needs should be investigated and taken into account when organizing and distributing primary health services. The needs of the patients are more important than the needs of the organization.
Further principles of primary health care include shaping public policy to reflect health care goals so that there are guidelines and targets to work towards. "Healthy" public policy should be a part of all sectors, for example in production of healthy food, in educating people on how to live healthy lives, and in public amenities such as waste removal. Empowering people to keep healthy is part of primary health care. Health promotion can prevent many illnesses from occurring in the first place.
Those who use primary health care should be encouraged to have a say on how services are provided. Technology is also taken into account, as it must be appropriate and affordable and not push up the price of health care. Primary health care should be affordable to individuals and the country as a whole so that it remains accessible and the very poor are not excluded.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .