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Approaches to Community Health

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الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       15/10/2014 20:29:47

Approaches to Community Health

Health promotion
Health promotion refers to those activities or actions related to encouraging individual lifestyles or personal choices that positively influence health.
Physical activity and fitness, nutrition, and substance (e.g., tobacco, alcohol) use and abuse are examples of controllable behaviors or actions that affect health.
Health promotion has been defined by the World Health Organization s (WHO) 2005 Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World as "the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and thereby improve their health" The primary means of health promotion occur through developing healthy public policy that addresses the prerequisites of health such as income, housing, food security, employment, and quality working conditions. More recent work has used the term Health in All Policies to refer to the actions to incorporate health into all public policies. There is a tendency among public health officials and governments—and this is especially the case in neoliberal nations such as Canada and the USA—to reduce health promotion to health education and social marketing focused on changing behavioral risk factors.
In 1984 the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe defined health promotion as "the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. In addition to methods to change lifestyles, the WHO Regional Office advocated "legislation, fiscal (economic) measures, organisational change, community development and spontaneous local activities against health hazards" as health promotion methods.
1st International Conference on Health Promotion, Ottawa, 1986, which resulted in the "Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion". According to the Ottawa Charter, health promotion:
• "is not just the responsibility of the health sector, but goes beyond healthy life-styles to well-being"
• "aims at making... [political, economic, social, cultural, environmental, behavioral and biological factors] favorable through advocacy for health"
• "focuses on achieving equity in health"
• "demands coordinated action by all concerned: by governments, by health and other social organizations.
Nurses who are working in community settings, should be prepared for assisting clients by providing information, counseling, advocacy, referral or other interventions that allow the client to make formal choices to promote health.
Primary and secondary prevention refer to those interventions, such as counseling, screening, immunization, and health education, that directly affect health to prevent acute or chronic diseases or disability (i.e., heart disease and stroke, cancer, and diabetes)
Workplace health promotion
Work site health focus on the prevention and intervention that reduce health risk of the employee. The U.S. Public Health Service recently issued a report titled "Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" which provides a comprehensive review of the available scientific evidence about the relationship between physical activity and an individual s health status. The report shows that over 60% of Americans are not regularly active and 25% are not active at all. There is very strong evidence linking physical activity to numerous health improvements. Health promotion can be performed in various locations. Among the settings that have received special attention are the community, health care facilities, schools, and worksites. Worksite health promotion, also known by terms such as "workplace health promotion," has been defined as "the combined efforts of employers, employees and society to improve the health and well-being of people at work". WHO states that the workplace "has been established as one of the priority settings for health promotion into the 21st century" because it influences "physical, mental, economic and social well-being" and "offers an ideal setting and infrastructure to support the promotion of health of a large audience".
Worksite health promotion programs (also called "workplace health promotion programs," "worksite wellness programs," or "workplace wellness programs") include exercise, nutrition, smoking cessation and stress management.
Health promotion strategies are not limited to a specific health problem, nor to a specific set of behaviours. WHO as a whole applies the principles of, and strategies for, health promotion to a variety of population groups, risk factors, diseases, and in various settings. Health promotion, and the associated efforts put into education, community development, policy, legislation and regulation, are equally valid for prevention of communicable diseases, injury and violence, and mental problems, as they are for prevention of non communicable diseases.

Health Promotion strives to empower students’ health and wellbeing using creative, student-centered prevention and behavior change theory approaches that influence student success.
Nurses provide information, education, consultation and referral on a wide variety of wellness issues such as alcohol and other drugs, nutrition, relationships, fitness, and stress. We invite students to enhance their awareness and knowledge of health issues by consulting one-on-one with our trained professional staff.
Nurses maintain a collection of educational resources, such as brochures, books, videos, and posters for students interested in improving or maintaining their health. You may use these materials for course work, special projects, or personal growth. Also, expert staff and peer educators are available for in-service training for student groups.
In addition, Health Promotion supports faculty by presenting guest lectures, providing literature, and fulfilling special requests pertaining to health education.
Case management refers to the coordination of services on behalf of an individual person who may be considered a case in different settings such as health care, nursing, rehabilitation, social work, disability insurance, employment, and law. The concept lacks a universal definition and may refer to:
Case management (mental health), a specific approach for the coordination of community mental health services
Case management (USA health system), a specific term used in the health care system of the United States of America
Medical case management, a general term referring to the facilitation of treatment plans to assure the appropriate medical care is provided to disabled, ill or injured individuals
Case management nurses are specialized registered nurses who manage the long-term care plans for patients with chronic or complicated medical conditions. These nurses work closely with patients and their loved ones to evaluate patients needs and come up with a comprehensive healthcare plan that speaks to their preferences and goals.
Case management nurses generally have a concentration, a portion of the patient population on which they focus their greatest attention. For example, they will manage healthcare for patients coping with HIV/AIDS, elderly patients who are trying to manage several different medical problems, cancer patients, patients suffering from mental illnesses or deficiencies, or those awaiting or recovering from organ transplants.
Beyond managing patients healthcare plans, a case management nurse also has the opportunity to work in a social work capacity, for example by helping patients and families to resolve financial issues. These nurses act as advocates to ensure that each patient receives the most cost-effective care possible. Advocacy includes medication management and scheduling medical testing and any necessary follow-up to ensure that each patient is heard and afforded the care he needs.
Acting as patient care liaisons, case management nurses coordinate the care that patients receive from each healthcare provider and manage plans for chemotherapy, radiation therapy or other continued therapies. They arrange for transfers among units within a hospital, or from a hospital to another care facility such as a nursing facility, rehabilitation center, long-term care facility, or homecare. The critical help they provide provides peace of mind and a sense of security to patients and their families.
Empowerment
Empowerment in nursing can mean either arising from the environment or developing from one s psychological state. Empowerment can either be structural or psychological. Empowerment as viewed by many nurses is required so as to elevate their lack of power to influence their working conditions and to access workplace structures to garner structural empowerment. Empowerment can mean the process of providing the proper tools, resources and environment to build and increase the ability and effectiveness of others so as to set and reach goals for an individual and for social ends.
Empowerment refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social, educational, gender, or economic strength of individuals and communities. The term empowerment covers a vast landscape of meanings, interpretations,...
It is a profession focused on assisting individuals, families, and communities in attaining, maintaining, and recovering optimal health and functioning. Modern definitions of nursing define it as a science and an art that focuses on promoting quality of life as defined by persons and families, throughout their life experiences from birth to care at the end of life. The profession has developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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