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Rules and rights

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أستاذ المادة سلمى كاظم جهاد الابراهيمي       17/03/2014 19:40:01
Rules and rights


Law:

is a term which does not have a universally accepted definition, but one definition is that law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced through social institutions to govern behavior.

Laws can be made by legislatures through legislation (resulting in statutes), the executive through decrees and regulations, or judges through binding precedents (normally in common law jurisdictions).

Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including (in some jurisdictions) arbitration agreements(negotiations ) that exclude the normal court process.

The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution (written or unwritten) and the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics, and society in various ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people.
The law is generally divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct that is considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law (not to be confused with civil law jurisdictions above) deals with the resolution of lawsuits (disputes) between individuals or organizations. These resolutions seek to provide a legal remedy (often monetary damages) to the winning litigant.
Under civil law, the following specialties, among others, exist: Contract law regulates everything from buying a bus ticket to trading on derivatives markets. Property law regulates the transfer and title of personal property and real property.
Trust law applies to assets held for investment and financial security. Tort law allows claims for compensation if a person s property is harmed. Constitutional law provides a framework for the creation of law, the protection of human rights and the election of political representatives. Administrative law is used to review the decisions of government agencies.
International law governs affairs between sovereign states in activities ranging from trade to military action.
Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality, fairness, and justice.



The Sociology of Human Rights:
It can be learned from Marx that the notion(concept) of human rights is a construct that is produced through social relations. For Marx, naturally, these rights are rights of freedom that not only do not entail,(needed) but explicitly run contrary to, social rights of equality, thus even exacerbating conditions of (economic) inequality. Related to the Marxian critique, R.W. Connel (1995) has argued that the hesitancy of sociology to engage in the study of human rights is due to the conflict between sociology’s holistic approach and the liberal individualism associated with the discourse (discussion) on rights.

Personality:
Has to do with individual differences among people in behavior patterns, cognition and emotion. Different personality theorists present their own definitions of the word based on their theoretical positions.
An individual s personality is an aggregate conglomeration of the decisions they have made throughout their life and the memory of the experiences to which these decisions led.
There are inherent natural, genetic, and environmental factors that contribute to the development of our personality.
According to process of socialization, "personality also colors our values, beliefs, and expectations ... Hereditary factors that contribute to personality development do so as a result of interactions with the particular social environment in which people live."
There are several personality types as Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers illustrated in several personalities typology tests, which are based on Carl Jung s school of Analytical psychology. However, these tests only provide enlightenment based on the preliminary insight scored according to the answers judged by the parameters of the test.
Other theories on personality development include Jean Piaget s stages of development, Erik Erikson s stages of psychosocial development, and personality development in Sigmund Freud s theory being formed through the interaction of id, ego, and super-ego.
Characteristics of self-actualizers according to Maslow include the four key dimensions:
Awareness - maintaining constant enjoyment and awe of life. These individuals often experienced a "peak experience". He defined a peak experience as an "intensification of any experience to the degree there is a loss or transcendence of self". A peak experience is one in which an individual perceives an expansion of his or herself, and detects a unity and meaningfulness in life. Intense concentration on an activity one is involved in, such as running a marathon, may invoke a peak experience.
Reality and problem centered - having a tendency to be concerned with "problems" in surroundings.
Acceptance/Spontaneity - accepting surroundings and what cannot be changed.
Unhostile sense of humor/democratic - do not take kindly to joking about others, which can be viewed as offensive. They have friends of all backgrounds and religions and hold very close friendships.
Maslow and Rogers emphasized a view of the person as an active, creative, experiencing human being who lives in the present and subjectively responds to current perceptions, relationships, and encounters.
They disagree with the dark, pessimistic outlook of those in the Freudian psychoanalysis ranks, but rather view humanistic theories as positive and optimistic proposals which stress the tendency of the human personality toward growth and self-actualization.
This progressing self will remain the center of its constantly changing world; a world that will help mold (shape) the self but not necessarily imprison it. Rather, the self has opportunity for maturation based on its encounters with this world.
This understanding attempts to reduce the acceptance of hopeless redundancy. Humanistic therapy typically relies on the client for information of the past and its effect on the present, therefore the client dictates the type of guidance the therapist may initiate. This allows for an individualized approach to therapy. Rogers found patients differ in how they respond to other people. Rogers tried to model a particular approach to therapy- he stressed the reflective or empathetic response.

















المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .