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Causes of Mental Retardation

الكلية كلية التمريض     القسم قسم التمريض العام     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة سجاء هاشم محمد كاظم       6/26/2011 10:34:31 PM

 

 

Some Causes of Mental Retardation / Intellectual Disability

 

·         Before or At Conception

 

·         Inherited disorders (such as phenylketonuria, Tay-Sachs disease, neurofibromatosis, hypothyroidism, and fragile X syndrome)

 

·         Chromosome abnormalities (such as Down syndrome)

 

 

 

·         During Pregnancy

 

·         Severe maternal malnutrition

 

·         Infections with HIV, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, rubella virus

 

·         Toxins (such as alcohol, lead, and methyl mercury)

 

·         Drugs (such as phonation, valproate, isotretinoin, and cancer chemotherapy)

 

·         Abnormal brain development (such as pore cephalic cyst, grey matter heterotopias, and encephalocele)

 

·         Preeclampsia and multiple births

 

 

 

·         During Birth

 

·         Insufficient oxygen (hypoxia)

 

·         Extreme prematurity

 

 

 

·         After Birth

 

·         Brain infections (such as meningitis and encephalitis)

 

·         Severe head injury

 

·         Malnutrition of the child

 

·         Severe emotional neglect or abuse

 

·         Toxins (such as lead and mercury)

 

·         Brain tumors and their treatments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Levels of Mental Retardation/Intellectual Disability

 

Level

 

Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Range

 

Ability at Preschool Age (Birth to 6 Years)

 

Ability at School Age (6 to 20 Years)

 

Ability at Adult Age (21 Years and Older)

 

Mild

 

52-69

 

Can develop social and communication skills; motor coordination is slightly impaired; often not diagnosed until later age

 

Can learn up to about the 6th-grade level by late teens; can be expected to learn appropriate social skills

 

Can usually achieve enough social and vocational skills for self-support; may need guidance and assistance during times of unusual social or economic stress

 

Moderate

 

36-51

 

Can talk or learn to communicate; social awareness is poor; motor coordination is fair; can profit from training in self-help

 

Can learn some social and occupational skills; can progress to elementary school level in schoolwork; may learn to travel alone in familiar places

 

May achieve self-support by performing unskilled or semiskilled work under sheltered conditions; needs supervision and guidance when under mild social or economic stress

 

Severe

 

20-35

 

Can say a few words; able to learn some self-help skills; has limited speech skills; motor coordination is poor

 

Can talk or learn to communicate; can learn simple health habits; benefits from habit training

 

May contribute partially to self-care under complete supervision; can develop some useful self-protection skills in controlled environment

 

Profound

 

19 or below

 

Extreme cognitive limitation; little motor coordination; may need nursing care

 

Some motor coordination; limited communication skills

 

May achieve very limited self-care; usually needs nursing care

 

 


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .