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Life in Muslim Spain

الكلية كلية التربية الاساسية     القسم قسم التاريخ     المرحلة 4
أستاذ المادة بشرى محمد كاظم خضير المطيري       12/12/2012 06:35:34
Life in Muslim Spain
Alhambra in Granada, Spain:. The Alhambra complex sits on a hill at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada, Spain. The Alhambra is made up of three distinct areas: a fortress known as the Alcazaba, extensive gardens called Generalife, and the royal palace. The Alcazaba, parts of which date to the 11th century, is the oldest part of the complex. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Spain’s Moorish rulers built the Generalife and the royal palace in the Islamic architectural style. This photo faces the Alcazaba, with parts of the royal palace showing an impressive background.
Spanish society became increasingly complex under Muslim rule. This is partly because Islamic conquest did not involve the systematic conversion of the conquered population to Islam. Islam restricted the ability of Muslim rulers to tax other Muslims. At the same time, Christians and Jews were recognized under Islam as "peoples of the book" Christianity and Judaism shared with Islam the tradition of the Old Testament, and Islam considered Jesus Christ as a major prophet. Thus, Christians and Jews were free to practice their religion, but they had to pay a prescribed poll tax. Conversion to Islam therefore proceeded slowly. In many areas Muslim rulers found it easier to rely on the existing Christian network of the local authority.
The Roman Catholic church in Muslim Spain continued to function, although it lost contact with religious reforms in Rome. Muslim Spain came to include a growing number of Mozarabic Christians, people who adopted Arabic language and culture and followed forms of religious service different from those of Rome. In addition, Jews held prominent positions in government, commerce, and the professions under Muslim rule.
The Muslim Community in Spain was itself diverse and beset by social tensions. From the beginning the Berber tribes people of North Africa clashed with the Arabs of Egypt and the Middle East. The Berbers, who were comparatively recent converts to Islam. Accounted for the largest share of Moors in Spain and they resented the sophisticated and aristocratic pretension of the Arab elite. Meanwhile, many Christians in Spain, including Visicothic nobles, converted to Islam. Conversion was commonplace among merchants, large landowners, and other local elites. Drawn into the politics of Islamic power, many Christians found that conversion made it easier to maintain their influence. Despite being Muslim, however, former Christians often faced discrimination. These tensions led to struggle between the established Muslim leadership and local lords from once Christian families.
Spain was wealthy and sophisticated under Islamic rule. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the middle East and North Africa, including knowledge about mathematics, science and philosophy, and they continued to build open it in Spain. Crops and farming techniques introduced by the Arabs, including new irrigation practices, led to a remarkable expansion of agriculture. In towns and cities, the Muslims constructed magnificent mosques, palaces, and other architectural monuments, many of which still stand today. Outside the cities the mixture of large estates and small farms that existed in Roman times remained largely intact, because Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners. The Muslim conquerors were relatively few in number and they generally tried to maintain to maintain good relations with their subjects.
Roman, Jewish and Muslim culture interacted in complex ways. A large part of the population gradually adopted Arabic. Even Jews and Christians often spoke Arabic, while Hebrew and Latin were frequently written in Arabic script. These diverse traditions interchanged in ways that gave Spanish culture- religion, literature, music, art and architecture and writing systems, a rich and distinctive heritage0.

Vocabulary
Alhambra complex مجمع الحمراء Mozarabic Christians المسحيين المستعربيين
sits on يقع adopted تبنى
hill تل Arabic language اللغة العربية
mountain جبل culture ثقافة
distinct areas مناطق مميزة prominent دائم
fortress غابات positions وظائف
Alcazaba القاضبة government حكومة
extensive gardens حدائق غتاء commerce تجارة
the royal palace القصر الملكي professions مهن
oldest part اقدم جزء diverse تنوع
face يواجه beset تحدق به
background خلفية social tensions التوتورات الاجتماعية
showing تظهر Berber البربر
increasingly complex معقد بتزايد tribes people اناس قبيليين
involve يتضمن North Africa شمال افريقيا
systematic conversion تحول منظم clashed with اشتبكت مع
restricted محددة Arabs of Egypt عرب مصر
tax ضريبة comparatively نسبيا
Christians المسيحيون recent converts المتحولون حديثا
Jews اليهود resented استاء
financially advantageous مستفيد ماليا accounted for استاثر ب
peoples of the book اهل الكناب sophistication التطور
Christianity الديانة المسيحية aristocratic pretensions المظاهر الارستقراطية
Judaism الديانة اليهودية Visigoth nobles النبلاء القوط الغربيين
major prophet نبي من اولي العزم commonplace مألوف
Jesus Christ عيسى المسيح merchants تجار
practice يمارس large landowners ملاك الاراضي الكبيرة
pay يدفع local elites النحب المحلية
prescribed المشرعة Drawn into الانجرار
poll tax ضريبة الجزية politics السياسة
existing الموجود Islamic power السلطة الاسلامية
Christian network شبكة من المسيحيون maintain المحافظة
local authority السلطة المحلية their influence نفوذهم
Roman Catholic Church الكنيسة الكاثولوكية الرومانية discrimination تمييز
continued استمر struggles نضالات
function يوظف Muslim leadership قيادة المسلمين
lost contact فقد الاتصال local lords السادة المحليين
religious reform الاصلاح الديني wealthy ثري
Rome روما architectural monuments معالم معمارية
sophisticated متطوره still stand today لاتزال موجودة اليوم
Islamic rule الحكم الاسلامي large estates دول كبيرة
trade and cultural exchange التبادل التجاري والثقافي small farms مزارع صغيرة
flourished ازدهر intact
imported استورد Muslim leaders القادة المسلمون
a rich intellectual tradition التقليد الفكري العريق dispossessed جردوا
knowledge المعرفة generally عموما
mathematics علم الرياضيات tried حاول
science العلوم good relations علاقات جيدة
philosophy الفلسفة population عدد سكان
Crops and farming techniques محاصيل واساليب زراعية frequently written كتبت مرارا
introduced by the Arab المقدمة من العرب Arabic scripts نصوص عربية
new irrigation practices ممارسات جديدة في الراي diverse traditions تقاليد متنوعة
led to قادت الى interchanged متبادل
remarkable expansion توسع ملحوظ a rich and distinctive heritage ارث غنيا ومتميزا
agriculture الزراعة
constructed شيدت
magnificent mosques مساجد رائعة
palaces قصور


TRANSLATION
Life in Muslim Spain
Alhambra in Granada, Spain:. The Alhambra complex sits on a hill at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada, Spain. The Alhambra is made up of three distinct areas: a fortress known as the Alcazaba, extensive gardens called Generalife, and the royal palace. The Alcazaba, parts of which date to the 11th century, is the oldest part of the complex. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Spain’s Moorish rulers built the Generalife and the royal palace in the Islamic architectural style. This photo faces the Alcazaba, with parts of the royal palace showing an impressive background.
الحياة في اسبانيا الإسلامية
الحمراء في غرناطة, اسبانيا. يقع مجمع الحمراء على تل على أعتاب جبل سيرانيفادا في غرناطة باسبانيا. وهذا المجمع مؤلف من ثلاث مناطق مميزة: غابات تعرف بالقاضبة وحدائق غناء تدعى بالجنرالايف وقصر الحكم. ان القاضبة تعود الى القرن الحادي عشر وهي اقدم جزء في هذا المجمع. بينما الحكام المغاربة شيدوا الجنرالايف وقصر الحكم خلال القرنين الثالث عشر والرابع عشر بطراز هندسي معماري إسلامي. ان طراز الحدائق واجزاء من القصر تظهر صورة لخلفية رائعة.
Spanish society became increasingly complex under Muslim rule. This is partly because Islamic conquest did not involve the systematic conversion of the conquered population to Islam. Islam restricted the ability of Muslim rulers to tax other Muslims. At the same time, Christians and Jews were recognized under Islam as "peoples of the book" Christianity and Judaism shared with Islam the tradition of the Old Testament, and Islam considered Jesus Christ as a major prophet. Thus, Christians and Jews were free to practice their religion, but they had to pay a prescribed poll tax. Conversion to Islam therefore proceeded slowly. In many areas Muslim rulers found it easier to rely on the existing Christian network of the local authority.
اصبح المجتمع الاسباني معقدا بشكل متزايد في ظل الحكم الاسلامي. ذلك يعود بشكل جزئي الى ان الفتح الاسلامي لم يتضمن تحول منظم للسكان الى الاسلام. كما ان الاسلام حدد امكانية الحكام المسلمين لفرض الضريبة على غير المسلمين. في الوقت نفسه، الاسلام اعتبر اليهود والنصارى "هم اهل الكتاب " حيث تشترك الديانة اليهودية والمسيحية مع الاسلام بانها اديان سماوية منزلة, كما يعتبر الاسلام عيسى المسيح رسول من اولي العزم. هكذا كان اليهود والنصارى يمارسون طقوسهم الدينية بحرية لكن عليهم دفع الجزية المحددة. لذلك كان التحول الى الدين الاسلامي يمضي ببطء ووجد القادة المسلمين في مناطق عديدة انه من السهل الاعتماد على شبكة النصارى الموجودة في السلطة المحلية.

QUESTIONS
1. Where does Alhambra complex sit on?
- The Alhambra complex sits on a hill at the base of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Granada, Spain
2. What is Alhambra complex made of?
- The Alhambra is made up of three distinct areas: a fortress known as the Alcazaba, extensive gardens called Generalife, and the royal palace.
3. What is Alcazaba?
- The Alcazaba, parts of which date to the 11th century, is the oldest part of the complex,
4. When did Moorish rulers build the Genralife and the royal palace?
- Moorish rulers built the Generalife and the royal palace during the 13th and 14th centuries.
5. What were Christians and Jews recognized under Islam?
- Christians and Jews were recognized under Islam as "peoples of the book".
6. Who should pay the tax to Muslims?
- Christians and Jews should pay the tax to Muslims.
7. Were Christians and Jews free to practice their religion?
- Yes, they were.


المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .