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Linguistics 2

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الكلية كلية التربية للعلوم الانسانية     القسم قسم اللغة الانكليزية     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة حسين حميد معيوف الدليمي       28/06/2017 15:02:11
Lecture 2
The scope of linguistics
Linguistics covers a wide range of topics and its boundaries are difficult to define.
A diagram in the shape of a wheel gives a rough impression of the range covered.
In the centre is phonetics, the study of human speech sounds. A good knowledge of phonetics is useful for a linguist. Yet it is a basic background knowledge, rather than part of linguistics itself. Phoneticians are concerned with the actual physical sounds, the raw material out of which language is made. They study the position of the tongue, teeth and vocal cords during the production of sounds, and record and analyse sound waves. Linguists, on the other hand, are more interested in the way in which language is patterned. They analyse the shape or form of these patterns rather than the physical substance out of which the units of language are made.
The famous Swiss linguist, Ferdinand de Saussure, expressed the difference well when he compared language with a game of chess. The linguist is interested in the various moves which the chessmen make and how they are aligned on the board. It does not matter whether the chessmen are made of wood or ivory. Their substance does not alter the rules of the game.

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Although phonetics and linguistics are sometimes referred to together as ‘the linguistic sciences’, phonetics is not as central to general linguistics as the study of language patterning. For this reason, information about phonetics has been placed in an appendix at the end of the book.
In Figure 1.1, phonetics is surrounded by phonology (sound patterning), then phonology is surrounded by syntax. The term ‘syntax’, used in its broadest sense, refers to both the arrangement and the form of words. It is that part of language which links together the sound patterns and the meaning.Semantics (meaning) is placed outside syntax. Phonology, syntax and semantics are the ‘bread and butter’ of linguistics, and are a central concern of this book. Together they constitute the grammar of a language.



المادة المعروضة اعلاه هي مدخل الى المحاضرة المرفوعة بواسطة استاذ(ة) المادة . وقد تبدو لك غير متكاملة . حيث يضع استاذ المادة في بعض الاحيان فقط الجزء الاول من المحاضرة من اجل الاطلاع على ما ستقوم بتحميله لاحقا . في نظام التعليم الالكتروني نوفر هذه الخدمة لكي نبقيك على اطلاع حول محتوى الملف الذي ستقوم بتحميله .
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