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Cranial nerves and autonomic nervous system of the head and neck

الكلية كلية طب حمورابي     القسم الكلية ذات القسم الواحد     المرحلة 3
أستاذ المادة علي عباس هاشم الموسوي       09/03/2020 11:44:01

Cranial nerves and autonomic nervous system of the head and neck
By
Dr.Ali Abbas Almusawi
Consultant Neurosurgeon
FRCS Glasg,FACS, FIBMS
Hammurabi College of Medicine
aliabbasalmusawi@gmail.com
http://staff.uobabylon.edu.iq/site.aspx?id=51563

The twelve cranial nerves all contribute to the innervations of the skin, viscera and muscles of the head and neck.Nerves derived from the cervical plexus innervate a portion of the skin of the region.It is essential to understand that cranial nerves can distribute not only sensory and motor fibres like, but also autonomic nerves involved with special sensation like vision, taste, etc.
1.The olfactory is distributed to the uppermost part of the nasal cavity and is concerned with smell; it contains only special sensation fibres. It reaches the nose via the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and fractures of the ethmoid involving the dura mater may be associated with leakage of CSF from the nose

2.The optic nerve (CN II) is the second cranial nerve, responsible for transmitting the special sensory information for vision.considered part of the central nervous system, and examination of the nerve enables an assessment of intracranial health.
The course of the optic nerve can be divided into extracranial (outside the cranial cavity) and intracranial components.the nerve leaves the bony orbit via the optic canal, a passageway through the sphenoid bone. It enters the cranial cavity, running along the surface of the middle cranial fossa (in close proximity to the pituitary gland).

Within the middle cranial fossa, the optic nerves from each eye unite to form the optic chiasm. At the chiasm, fibres from the nasal (medial) half of each retina cross over to the contralateral optic tract, while fibres from the temporal (lateral) halves remain ipsilateral:
Left optic tract – contains fibres from the left temporal (lateral) retina, and the right nasal (medial) retina.
Right optic tract – contains fibres from the right temporal retina, and the left nasal retina.

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