الاراء والمقالات جميع الاراء والمقالات السابقة موجودة في المكتبة

  • تاريخ الاضافة : 18/2/2014
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  • تاريخ الاضافة : 22/2/2013
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أ - الاقتصاد الذكي ب -المجتمع الذكي ج- الحكم الذكي د-الحركة الذكية ه- البيئة الذكية و-المعيشة الذكية
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 28/2/2011
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جهود الأمم المتحدة في تعزيز الثقافة وزيادة الوعي حول التغير المناخي بين منظماتها المختلفة
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 28/2/2011
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Sustainability has emerged as a planning concept from its beginnings in economics and ecological thinking and has widely been applied to urban development. Urban sustainability is simply described as a desirable state or set of urban conditions that persists overtime. Just as the task of defining sustainability has progressed in response to early economic thinking, so has the task of its assessment. Many urban sustainability assessment methods can be identified from literature. However an examination of these methods reveals largely three methodological foundations. Focusing on the context of urban development, this paper presents an appraisal of the relative potentials and limitations of methods developed around the three identified methodological foundations. The paper agrees with the much held view that, most currently available urban sustainability assessment methods fail to demonstrate sufficient understanding of the interrelations and interdependencies of social, economic and environmental considerations. It further points to a wide gap between assessment theories and practices. To help narrow this rather wide gap, the paper recommends a pragmatic shift in focus, from theory development to application and auditing. A suggestion is made for the application of key assessment methods in a given urban area and across various issues, spatial and time scales so as to allow for method comparison. It is hoped that the parallel application of existing methods will greatly accelerate the urban sustainability assessment learning process and will help in the improvement of both theory and practice.
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 27/2/2011
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The environmental management system ‘industry’ has its experts – trainers, consultants, auditors and certification bodies – and they generally take for granted that the clients they deal with have at least as much understanding about EMS development as they have. During the training, consultancy or auditing process, there will be gaps in the knowledge of the client and errors in the implementation processes. That is why such experts are used by clients and called in to assist.
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 27/2/2011
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Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of various management tools for evaluating environmental concerns. This paper reviews LCA from a buildings perspective. It highlights the need for its use within the building sector, and the importance of LCA as a decision making support tool. It discusses LCA methodologies and applications within the building sector, reviewing some of the life-cycle studies applied to buildings or building materials and component combinations within the last fifteen years in Europe and the United States. It highlights the problems of a lack of an internationally comparable and agreed data inventory and assessment methodology which hinder the application of LCA within the building industry. It identifies key areas for future research as (i) the whole process of construction, (ii) the relative weighting of different environmental impacts and (iii) applications in developing countries.
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 27/2/2011
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This publication provides a selection of urban sustainability information (websites, website reports and books) from countries other than New Zealand. It complements an earlier publication that compiled New Zealand information on urban sustainability1. The aim of these two publications is to provide useful information to urban practitioners to assist them in creating liveable and sustainable towns and cities.
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 27/2/2011
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Construction has to support a world of continuing population growth and economic development. At the same time, construction must pay heed to the widespread social interest in environmental preservation. It cannot further increase its environmental impact because it is not socially and environmentally acceptable. Yet the construction industry has not done enough to reduce its environmental footprint. Concerted national and international research and educational efforts are needed to change this situation. Construction engineering and management research should benefit from a systems perspective, and from application of standard methods and tools developed for environmentally-conscious design, construction and management by other industries such as the electronics, electromechanical products, and the automobile sectors. Traditional construction engineering and management education needs to incorporate the latest methods and tools for environmentally-conscious design, engineering and management, and discuss relevant case studies. Educational objectives could be achieved by including environmental modules in existing courses, developing new courses that focus on environmentally-conscious construction, and encouraging and advising undergraduate and graduate research projects. This paper outlines an agenda for action in research and education.
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 27/2/2011
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أن التنمية المستدامة هي التنمية التي تلبي حاجات الحاضر دون المساومة على قدرة الأجيال المقبلة على تلبية حاجاتهم أي أن المساوات والعدالة بين الأجيال وهي واحدة من العوامل المطلوبة للتنمية المستدامة .
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 27/2/2011
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11 test
test
  • تاريخ الاضافة : 26/2/2011
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